How Annuities Are Taxed

Annuities offer powerful tax advantages, and a few (avoidable) pitfalls. How to cut your taxes and avoid surprises.

Annuities are designed to build wealth and income for your retirement through tax deferral. Interest earned in a deferred annuity (the most popular type) is not taxed until withdrawn. Deferring taxes accelerates savings growth because interest compounds faster without withdrawals needed to pay taxes.

Compounding occurs when interest is paid on previously earned interest. Most investments that earn interest, such as money market accounts, savings accounts, certificates of deposit and most bonds, create taxable income. Since you’re paying federal (and often state) income tax on it each year, you’ll have less after-tax interest to compound, and your savings won’t grow as fast.

With a tax-deferred investment, all of your interest is compounded until withdrawn.

Annuities have some unique tax advantages. In some cases, they can even be used to pay for long-term care without the usual taxes on distributions!  But there are some potential tax pitfalls.

Taxation outside and inside of retirement accounts

Annuities can be purchased with pretax funds or after-tax funds. Pretax accounts, such as IRAs and 401(k) and 403(b) plans, are known as qualified retirement plans. If you use an annuity to fund one of these types of accounts, it’s thus called a “qualified” annuity.

In contrast, “nonqualified” annuities are purchased with ordinary after-tax money. By shifting some of your money into a nonqualified deferred annuity, you can cut your taxes.

Interest earned in both qualified and nonqualified annuities is not reportable on your tax return until you withdraw it. However, qualified annuities held in retirement accounts are subject to required minimum distribution (RMD) rules. You must take withdrawals each year after you reach age 72.

Nonqualified annuities are not subject to RMD rules, so interest can continue to compound without tax until you withdraw some or all of it. This gives you great flexibility. Let’s say you do not need more income when you’re 72. With a nonqualified annuity, you can wait until you do need the income and benefit from more years of tax-deferred growth.

Income withdrawn from all types of deferred annuities is taxed as “ordinary income,” not long-term capital gain income. This tax treatment applies to fixed-rate, fixed-indexed, variable and income annuities.

Here are some key tax wrinkles regarding annuities.

Income annuity payments are only partially taxable

Your original investment — the purchase premium(s) you paid — in a nonqualified annuity is not taxed when withdrawn. Only the interest portion of the payment is taxable.

With a deferred annuity, IRS rules state that you must withdraw all of the taxable interest first before withdrawing any tax-free principal. You can avoid this significant drawback by converting an existing fixed-rate, fixed-indexed or variable deferred annuity into an income annuity. Or you can buy an income annuity in the first place.

An income annuity provides a stream of guaranteed payments, starting either right away with an immediate annuity or in the future with a deferred income annuity. As mentioned above, each payment includes both taxable interest and tax-free return of your premium.

The exclusion ratio depends on how long you’ve held the annuity, how much interest you’ve earned and how long the payments will last, but, for example, 75% of each payment might be tax-free return of principal and 25% taxable.

Age 59½ rule

 If you withdraw money from your annuity before age 59½, you’ll typically owe Uncle Sam a 10% penalty on the interest earnings you’ve withdrawn as well as ordinary income tax on the amount. If you are permanently disabled at the time of the withdrawal, the IRS will waive this penalty.

A unique tax perk for long-term care

Annuity interest that is used to pay long-term care insurance premiums can usually be withdrawn tax-free. This can be a big advantage.

Taxes at death

If you’re married, your spouse can assume the ownership of your qualified or nonqualified annuity at your death without any taxes.

Children who are beneficiaries are required to claim only the untaxed portion of the annuity on their tax return. Under certain circumstances, the annuity can be distributed and taxed over a number of years. If you name a charity as your beneficiary, you can partially or fully offset income tax liability.


You can roll over your IRA, 401(k) or 403(b) or pension plan lump-sum payout into any type of qualified annuity without taxes.


Contributions made to a qualified annuity are deductible within IRS limits for retirement plans.  In other words, the same deductibility limits apply to qualified annuities as they would for any other IRA, 401(k) or 403(b) or other qualified plan. (See the IRS website for deductibility limits for IRAs.) Premium payments to nonqualified annuities are not.


Nonqualified annuities may be exchanged tax-free for another nonqualified annuity — a so-called 1035 exchange. You can trade an annuity that may not have the features you like for another annuity that has better features or may pay a higher rate. 

Qualified immediate annuities

Because the funds in a pretax qualified annuity have never been taxed, the total amount of the payments received each year is taxable. These amounts count toward your required minimum distributions (RMDs).

A QLAC lets you reduce and defer RMDs

A qualified longevity annuity contract, or QLAC, is a qualified annuity that meets IRS requirements. It lets you defer up to 25% of RMDs until age 85 and thus reduce your taxes until the payments begin. QLAC income is 100% taxable, but it’s money you’d eventually have to withdraw from your IRA anyway.

Over your lifetime, you can allocate 25% of the total of all your IRAs or $135,000, whichever is less, to a QLAC.

A free quote comparison service with interest rates from dozens of insurers is available at or by calling 800-239-0356.

About the Author

Ken Nuss

CEO / Founder, AnnuityAdvantage

Retirement-income expert Ken Nuss is the founder and CEO of AnnuityAdvantage, a leading online provider of fixed-rate, fixed-indexed and immediate-income annuities. Interest rates from dozens of insurers are constantly updated on its website. He launched the AnnuityAdvantage website in 1999 to help people looking for their best options in principal-protected annuities. More information is available from the Medford, Oregon, based company at or (800) 239-0356.

Most Popular

Retirement Income Shouldn’t Depend on the Market; It Should Depend on Math
retirement planning

Retirement Income Shouldn’t Depend on the Market; It Should Depend on Math

The math isn’t as tough as you might think. It all starts with dividing your assets into three different buckets.
May 23, 2022
Your Guide to Roth Conversions
Special Report
Tax Breaks

Your Guide to Roth Conversions

A Kiplinger Special Report
February 25, 2021
Why Are Gas Prices Still Going Up?

Why Are Gas Prices Still Going Up?

The cost of a gallon of gas is heading back toward its March highs. What’s driving the resurgence, and will gas prices go down anytime soon?
May 23, 2022


You May Be Worrying About the Economy Too Much

You May Be Worrying About the Economy Too Much

Buck up. Yes, we are facing some crises right now, but once you put things into perspective, you’ll see things may not be as bleak as you fear.
May 25, 2022
Is Securities-Based Lending a Good Idea?

Is Securities-Based Lending a Good Idea?

Securities-based lending may be a quick way to lay your hands on some cash, but you should be aware of the potential for risk.
May 25, 2022
Buying Annuities in Your 401(k)
Financial Planning

Buying Annuities in Your 401(k)

More plans are offering annuities that could provide income in retirement. Here’s what you need to know.
May 24, 2022
Education is Key: 3 Financial Lessons for Retirees Nearing Retirement
retirement planning

Education is Key: 3 Financial Lessons for Retirees Nearing Retirement

When it comes to retirement planning, educating yourself can keep you from making big mistakes. Here are three key lessons that everyone preparing for…
May 24, 2022