What Are the Income Tax Brackets for 2022 vs. 2023?

Depending on your taxable income, you can end up in one of seven different federal income tax brackets – each with its own marginal tax rate.

calculator, notebook, and a post-it note with "tax bracket" written on it
(Image credit: Getty Images)

Smart taxpayers are planning ahead and already thinking about their next federal income tax return. For most Americans, that's their return for the 2022 tax year — which will be due on April 18, 2023 (or October 16, 2023, if you request a tax filing extension next year). When it comes to federal income tax rates and brackets, the tax rates themselves aren't changing from 2022 to 2023. The same seven tax rates in effect for the 2022 tax year – 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35% and 37% – still apply for 2023. However, the tax brackets for 2022 and 2023 are different (i.e., new beginning and ending dollar amounts are established for each bracket). That's because the brackets are adjusted each year to account for inflation. As a result, you could end up in different tax brackets in 2022 and 2023. That, of course, also means you could pay a different tax rate on some of your income from 2022 to 2023.

The tax bracket ranges also differ depending on your filing status. For example, for single filers, the 22% tax bracket for the 2022 tax year starts at $41,776 and ends at $89,075. However, for head-of-household filers, it goes from $55,901 to $89,050. (For 2023, the 22% tax bracket range for singles is from $44,726 to $95,375, while the same rate applies to head-of-household filers with taxable income from $59,851 to $95,350.) So, that's something else to keep in mind when you're filing a return or planning to reduce a future tax bill.

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2022 Tax Rates and Brackets

When you're working on your 2022 federal income tax return next year, here are the tax brackets and rates you'll need based on your filing status:

Swipe to scroll horizontally
Single Filers and Married Couples Filing Jointly
Tax RateTaxable Income
(Single)
Taxable Income
(Married Filing Jointly)
10%Up to $10,275Up to $20,550
12%$10,276 to $41,775$20,551 to $83,550
22%$41,776 to $89,075$83,551 to $178,150
24%$89,076 to $170,050$178,151 to $340,100
32%$170,051 to $215,950$340,101 to $431,900
35%$215,951 to $539,900$431,901 to $647,850
37%Over $539,900Over $647,850

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Swipe to scroll horizontally
Married Couples Filing Separately and Head-of-Household Filers
Tax RateTaxable Income
(Married Filing Separately)
Taxable Income
(Head of Household)
10%Up to $10,275Up to $14,650
12%$10,276 to $41,775$14,651 to $55,900
22%$41,776 to $89,075$55,901 to $89,050
24%$89,076 to $170,050$89,051 to $170,050
32%$170,051 to $215,950$170,051 to $215,950
35%$215,951 to $323,925$215,951 to $539,900
37%Over $332,925Over $539,900

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2023 Tax Rates and Brackets

If you're already thinking about how to handle your 2023 finances in a tax-efficient way — even though it's still only 2022 – here are the 2023 federal income tax brackets and rates for the four most common filing statuses:

Swipe to scroll horizontally
Single Filers and Married Couples Filing Jointly
Tax RateTaxable Income
(Single)
Taxable Income
(Married Filing Jointly)
10%Up to $11,000Up to $22,000
12%$11,001 to $44,725$22,001 to $89,450
22%$44,726 to $95,375$89,451 to $190,750
24%$95,376 to $182,100$190,751 to $364,200
32%$182,101 to $231,250$364,201 to $462,500
35%$231,251 to $578,125$462,501 to $693,750
37%Over $578,125Over $693,750

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Swipe to scroll horizontally
Married Couples Filing Separately and Head-of-Household Filers
Tax RateTaxable Income
(Married Filing Separately)
Taxable Income
(Head of Household)
10%Up to $11,000Up to $15,700
12%$11,001 to $44,725$15,701 to $59,850
22%$44,726 to $95,375$59,851 to $95,350
24%$95,376 to $182,100$95,351 to $182,100
32%$182,101 to $231,250$182,101 to $231,250
35%$231,251 to $346,875$231,251 to $578,100
37%Over $346,875Over $578,100

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How the Tax Brackets Work

Suppose you're single and end up with $100,000 of taxable income in 2022. Since $100,000 is in the 24% bracket for singles, will your 2022 tax bill simply a flat 24% of $100,000 – or $24,000? No! Your tax is actually less than that amount. That's because, using marginal tax rates, only a portion of your income is taxed at the 24% rate. The rest of it is taxed at the 10%, 12%, and 22% rates.

Here's how it works. Again, assuming you're single with $100,000 taxable income in 2022, the first $10,275 of your income is taxed at the 10% rate for $1,028 of tax. The next $31,500 of income (the amount from $10,276 to $41,775) is taxed at the 12% rate for an additional $3,780 of tax. After that, the next $47,300 of your income (from $41,776 to $89,075) is taxed at the 22% rate for $10,406 of tax. That leaves only $10,925 of your taxable income (the amount over $89,075) that is taxed at the 24% rate, which comes to an additional $2,622 of tax. When you add it all up, your total 2022 tax is only $17,836. (That's $6,164 less than if a flat 24% rate was applied to the entire $100,000.)

Now, suppose you're a millionaire. (We can all dream, right?) If you're single, only your 2022 income over $539,900 is taxed at the top rate (37%). The rest is taxed at lower rates as described above. So, for example, the tax on $1 million for a single person in 2022 is $332,955. That's a lot of money, but it's still $37,045 less than if the 37% rate were applied as a flat rate on the entire $1 million (which would result in a $370,000 tax bill).

Capital Gains Tax Rates

It's important to note that the tax rates on capital gains from the sale of stocks, bonds, cryptocurrency, real estate, and other capital assets aren't necessarily the same as the tax rates mentioned above for wages, interest, retirement account withdrawals, and other "ordinary" income. When determining the tax on capital gains, the rates that apply generally depend on how long you held the capital asset before selling it.

If you hold a capital asset for one year or less, any gain from the sale is considered short-term capital gain and taxed using the rates for ordinary income listed above. However, if you hold the asset for more than one year, the gain is treated as long-term capital gain and taxed a lower rate – either 0%, 15%, or 20%. As with the ordinary tax rates and brackets, which specific long-term capital gains tax rate applies depends on your taxable income. However, the long-term capital gain brackets are set up so that you'll generally pay tax at a lower rate than if the ordinary tax rates and brackets were applied.

For more on the taxation of capital gains, see Capital Gains Tax 101.

Rocky Mengle
Senior Tax Editor, Kiplinger.com

Rocky is a Senior Tax Editor for Kiplinger with more than 20 years of experience covering federal and state tax developments. Before coming to Kiplinger, he worked for Wolters Kluwer Tax & Accounting and Kleinrock Publishing, where he provided breaking news and guidance for CPAs, tax attorneys, and other tax professionals. He has also been quoted as an expert by USA Today, Forbes, U.S. News & World Report, Reuters, Accounting Today, and other media outlets. Rocky has a law degree from the University of Connecticut and a B.A. in History from Salisbury University.