Regardless of why you're chosen, it's quite a shock to learn that the IRS wants to examine your return. Even if you have no reason to think you did anything wrong, you can't escape the anxiety that accompanies an audit notice. For one thing, the return being audited is unlikely to be the one you just filed. The IRS generally has three years from the due date of your return to initiate an audit. So, for example, the IRS generally has until April 18, 2022, to flag your timely filed 2018 return for an examination.
But, whatever you do, don't panic! Here's what to expect and some tips on how to proceed. Hopefully, we can lower your stress level a notch or two.
How an Audit Begins
If you're selected for an audit, you'll get a letter announcing your fate. The simplest audit—a correspondence audit—requires only that you mail in the records needed to verify a specified claim on your return. Over the past few years, the IRS has been doing more of these types of audits. For a field audit, an IRS agent comes to your home or place of business to go over your records. Most common face-to-face meetings, though, come during office audits, which typically take place at a local IRS office. (Note: Don't expect an in-person field or office audit during the COVID-19 pandemic. Except in special situations, virtual meetings are being held instead.)
You'll probably have at least a couple of weeks to prepare. If the appointment is set for an inconvenient time or you find that you'll need extra time to pull your records together, call the IRS as soon as possible and ask for the audit to be rescheduled.
The written notice will note the items on your return that are being questioned—usually such broad categories as employee business expenses or casualty losses—and outline the types of records you'll need to clear up the matter. Office audits are usually limited to two or three issues, so you won't be expected to haul in all your records.
What kind of evidence do you need? Here's what a retired IRS official with 30 years of auditing experience said when we asked him that question: "I expect to see the records you used when you prepared the tax return. You must have had some. Otherwise, how did you know you gave $5,000 to charity?"
Also, be aware that auditors are sometimes looking for more than proof of what's on your return. They're also interested in whether income that should have been reported on your return was left off. That could mean a review of your bank records, for instance, in search of deposits that might represent unreported income.
The best way to begin preparing for your meeting is to pull out your copy of the return being audited. Before the IRS puts your forms to the test, do the deed yourself. And to get an idea of the IRS's methods, check to see if there's an IRS audit technique guide (opens in new tab) for your business or industry. These manuals are designed to help IRS agents understand how various kinds of businesses work and what to look for when going over a return. That guidance can be helpful for the taxpayer on the receiving end of the audit, too.
Pore over the items being questioned and pull together the documents that support your entries. Of course, there will be gaps, but don't automatically concede defeat. Try to reconstruct missing records:
- If, as luck would have it, you can't find the return, call the IRS office that contacted you and ask how to get a copy.
- Get copies of canceled checks from the bank or duplicates of receipts or written statements from individuals who can back up your claims.
- If you can't come up with written evidence for certain entries, prepare an oral explanation.
Your records don't need to be perfect. If you can reasonably explain how you came up with a figure that's not fully corroborated by the evidence, the IRS may well accept it. The IRS likes to stress how reasonable audit personnel are. However, when you're pulling together your records, remember this: The more thorough your documentation is in general, the more likely an auditor will cut you some slack on an occasional point.
Do You Need Help?
You can avoid going to the audit by hiring someone to go in your place. However, a representative must have written authorization to act for you. The IRS provides a power-of-attorney form—Form 2848 (opens in new tab)—for this purpose. Whether you go alone or hire a representative to go with you or in your place depends primarily on the issues involved. If they're relatively simple, cut-and-dried matters, you may be able to settle things without help. However, when matters are more technical or require interpretation of the law, it's more likely you'll need assistance. You have to make this judgment, and it will turn in part on how you feel about going head-to-head with the IRS. If you're scared, by all means get someone to go with you or in your place.
If someone else prepared your return, let him or her know about the audit and ask for tips on how to get ready for it. Whether you want this person to go along may depend on how much that would cost. Although the IRS prefers to wrap up cases with one meeting, if you don't agree with the auditor's conclusions or need time to round up extra evidence, you can schedule a follow-up meeting. Unless you fear you might capitulate if you go to the audit alone, you may want to try to settle as many issues as you can by yourself. If disagreements remain and the amount of money at stake justifies the expense, you can take an adviser along to the next session. That way you'll have help when you really need it but won't have to pay for handholding while you clear up routine matters. And don't forget that the Taxpayer Bill of Rights (opens in new tab) gives you the right to stop an audit in its tracks if you decide you want representation. If the audit begins to veer off of the topics you are prepared to discuss, for example, you can call a halt to the proceedings and seek help if you need it.
The Big Day
The key to success is being well prepared. Forget the old slapstick routine of dumping a box of canceled checks and ratty receipts on the auditor's desk. That suggests your records are sloppy, and that's the last impression you want to give. Remember, it's up to you to back up the information on your return. The better organized your records, the more smoothly things will go.
Establish credibility right from the start. If you do, there's a better chance a gap later may be overlooked. Say that the audit notice states that your interest deductions, charitable contributions, and travel write-offs will be reviewed. If you're solid on interest and contributions but shaky on travel, try to steer the audit to your strong suits first.
Don't go into the session looking for a fight, but don't equate being cooperative with giving in whenever the auditor raises an eyebrow, either. If the agent tells you your records don't substantiate a deduction, for example, ask what might suffice. Perhaps you can mail it in later.
Don't chat your way into a problem. Keep in mind that the agent is trained to zero in on tax issues. A comment you consider totally unrelated to your return might lead you into a thicket. Defending a deduction by saying you've taken it in the past, for example, could prompt a review of previously filed returns; discussing the family's cross-country driving vacation might lead the agent to recalculate the ratio of business/personal miles for your car; or bemoaning the problems that led your child to drop out of college could cost you a tax credit. Fear that taxpayers will talk themselves into trouble is the key reason many advisers recommend sending a representative to the audit rather than showing up in person.
Cutting a Deal—or Not
If you do go, above all, keep your wits about you. Don't be pressured into settling an issue just to bring the audit to an end. The IRS argues strenuously that it doesn't judge its agents on how much extra money their audits produce. Even so, the fact is that one of the best guides to an agent's efficiency is the amount of additional tax he or she generates without going through all the formal assessment procedures or litigation.
Also remember that there may be room for compromise on the issue at hand. It may save time and money all around to agree on some in-between point or even for one side to give up on one disputed item in order to win on another.
Most office audits take a few hours. You'll spend a lot of that time watching the agent crunch numbers. When it's over, you'll get the auditor's decision—usually that you owe more tax. He or she should explain each proposed change to your return and the reason for it.
If you agree, that's fine. But remember that the auditor doesn't have the final say. If you disagree with a finding, tell the auditor so and restate your position. He or she may be willing to compromise to close the case promptly.
You have several options if you choose to fight on. Even if you've handled things by yourself so far, at this point you may need professional help. You can ask for another meeting with the auditor to present additional evidence, or you can make an informal appeal to the auditor's boss. If you're still unhappy, you can go to the IRS regional appeal level. Or you can take your case to court.
Rocky is a Senior Tax Editor for Kiplinger with more than 20 years of experience covering federal and state tax developments. Before coming to Kiplinger, he worked for Wolters Kluwer Tax & Accounting and Kleinrock Publishing, where he provided breaking news and guidance for CPAs, tax attorneys, and other tax professionals. He has also been quoted as an expert by USA Today, Forbes, U.S. News & World Report, Reuters, Accounting Today, and other media outlets. Rocky has a law degree from the University of Connecticut and a B.A. in History from Salisbury University.