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All Contents © 2018The Kiplinger Washington Editors
By Sandra Block, Senior Editor
| Updated February 2018
If you work for a living, you know that your wages are taxable, and you’re probably aware that some investment income is taxed, too. But the IRS doesn't stop there.
If you’ve picked up some extra cash through luck, athletic skill or criminal activities, there’s a good chance you owe taxes on that money as well. Here are 10 things you may not know are taxable.
SEE ALSO: The Most-Overlooked Tax Deductions
Saddle Ridge Hoard coins, courtesy Kagins Inc.
In February 2013, a northern California couple were walking their dog on their rural property when they discovered six cans filled with 19th-century gold coins. The coins, which are being sold by Kagin’s Inc. of Tiburon, Calif. (and are also available online via Amazon.com), may be worth up to $10 million. The couple has wisely chosen to stay anonymous, but they won’t be able to hide their good fortune from the IRS. Found property that was lost or abandoned is taxable at its fair market value in the first year it’s your undisputed possession, the IRS says. That means the couple will have to pay federal taxes of 39.6% on their windfall, plus California state tax of up to 13.3%.
The precedent for the IRS’s “treasure trove” rule dates back to 1964, when a couple discovered $4,467 in a used piano they had purchased for $15. The IRS said the couple owed income taxes on the money, and a U.S. District Court agreed.
TOOL: See How Your Income Stacks Up Against Other Taxpayers
If you receive a scholarship to cover tuition, fees and books, you don’t have to pay taxes on the money. But if your scholarship also covers room and board, travel and other expenses, that portion of the award is taxable.
Likewise, students who receive financial aid in exchange for work, such as serving as a teaching or research assistant, must pay tax on that money, even if they use the proceeds to pay for tuition.
The good news: An effort by lawmakers in the U.S. House of Representatives to tax tuition benefits earned by graduate students was scuttled in the Senate, so tuition waivers and discounts will remain tax-free.
SEE ALSO: 11 Top Sources of College Scholarships
If you robbed a bank, embezzled money or staged an art heist last year, the IRS expects you to pay taxes on the proceeds. “Income from illegal activities, such as money from dealing illegal drugs, must be included in your income on Form 1040,” the IRS says. Bribes are also taxable, the IRS says.
In reality, few criminals report their ill-gotten gains on their tax returns. But if you’re caught, the feds can add tax evasion to the list of charges against you. That’s what happened to notorious gangster Al Capone, who served 11 years for tax evasion. Capone never filed a tax return, the IRS says.
SEE ALSO: 17 Red Flags for IRS Auditors
What happens in Vegas doesn't necessarily stay in Vegas. Gambling income includes (but isn’t limited to) winnings from lotteries, horse races and casinos. The payer is required to issue you a Form W2-G (which will also be reported to the IRS) if you win $1,200 or more from bingo or slot machines, $1,500 or more from keno, more than $5,000 from a poker tournament, or $600 or more at a horse track if it’s more than 300 times the amount of your bet. Even if you don't receive a W2-G, the IRS expects you to report gambling proceeds on line 21 (other income) of your 1040.
The good news: If you itemize, your gambling losses are deductible, but only to the extent of the winnings you report as income. For example, if you won $4,000 last year and had $5,000 in losing bets, your deduction for the losses is limited to $4,000. You can’t deduct the balance against other income or carry it forward. Report the deduction on line 28 (other miscellaneous deductions) on Schedule A.
Your state may want a bite, too, of course. And there are some interesting variations on state lottery winnings (think Powerball). California exempts state lottery winnings from taxes—as long as you buy your tickets in state. Maryland and Arizona withhold taxes on lottery winnings from non-residents, so even if you hailed from no-income-tax New Hampshire, you'd be on the hook. In 2016, Pennsylvania lawmakers eliminated that state’s tax exemption for lottery winnings, so if you hit the number in the Keystone State, you’ll have to pay up.
SEE ALSO: 9 Tax Breaks for the Middle Class
Along with a medal and a bouquet, U.S. athletes who win top honors at the 2018 Pyeongchang Olympics will receive a check from the U.S. Olympic Committee: $37,500 for gold, $22,500 for silver and $15,000 for bronze.
Legislation signed into law in 2016 exempts most medals and prizes from federal taxes. Supporters argued that the tax was unfair to Olympic athletes who spend years training, often at considerable financial expense. However, not all athletes will get a tax break. High-profile athletes who earn at least $1 million a year, such as snowboarding star Shaun White, will still have to pay taxes on their winnings.
SEE ALSO: 14 Nice-Try Tax Breaks Rejected by the IRS
Your winning football (or baseball) team may be imaginary, but if your brilliant lineup helped you win real money, it’s taxable. If you won $600 or more and played through a commercial Web site, you should receive a 1099-MISC reporting your earnings. The IRS will receive a copy of this form, too. Even if you won a private fantasy league among friends, your winnings are considered taxable.
The rules for fantasy football fortunes are the same as those for gambling income. You can deduct your losses (entry fees in leagues you didn't win) against your gains, as long as they occurred in the same year.
SEE ALSO: 14 Tax Breaks You Won't Believe Are Real
Every year, thousands of young, healthy women donate their eggs to infertile couples. Payments for this service generally range from $5,000 to $10,000, according to Egg Donation Inc., a company that matches donors with couples. Those payments are taxable income, according to the IRS. Fertility clinics typically send donors and the IRS a Form 1099 documenting the payment.
SEE ALSO: 7 Tax Forms That Can Accidentally Increase Your Tax Bill
Nobel Foundation via Wikipedia
If you were selected for this prestigious honor—worth about $1.1 million in 2017—you must pay taxes on it. Other awards that recognize your accomplishments, such as the Pulitzer Prize for journalists, are also taxable. The only way to avoid a tax hit is to direct the money to a tax-exempt charity before receiving it. That's what President Obama did when he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2009. If you accept the money and then give it to charity, you probably will have to pay taxes on some of it because the IRS limits charitable deductions to 50% of your adjusted gross income. (The threshold will rise to 60% for tax year 2018.)
SEE ALSO: 10 Most Tax-Friendly States in the U.S.
Ordinarily, gifts aren’t taxable, even if they’re worth a lot of money. But if your employer gives you a new set of golf clubs to recognize a job well done (or to persuade you to reject a job offer from a competitor), you’ll probably owe taxes on the value of your new irons.
More than 50 years ago, the Supreme Court ruled that a gift from an employer can be excluded from the employee’s income if it was made out of “detached and disinterested generosity.” Gifts that reward an employee for his or her services don’t meet that standard, the court said. Gifts that help promote the company don’t meet that standard, either.
QUIZ: How Well Do You Know the New Tax Law?
While you can use bitcoin to purchase a variety of goods and services, the IRS considers bitcoin -- along with other cryptocurrencies -- to be an asset. If the bitcoin you used to make the purchase is worth more than you paid for it, you're expected to pay taxes on your profits at capital gains rates -- just like stocks and bonds.
QUIZ: How Well Do You Really Understand Bitcoin?
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